CULTURE MUISCA. A pre-Columbian society who could stay complete even during the colonization, was the culture muisca;
the creators of the famous legend The Gilding.
This culture developed in the plateaus and vales of the Colombian oriental mountain range, precisely, in Cundinamarca, Boyacá and Santander.
A territory with a varied climate, from the inclement cold of the moorlands up to the moderate temperatures of the plains.
In addition to there is provided with a mountainous relief enough intricado, where most is formed by steep slopes.
The culture muisca also is known as chibcha, because its language belongs to the linguistic family chibchense.
The term muisca, it is a car denomination of this people, that the conquerors confused the word fly;
that really was fitting them well because they were great.
The mythical origins the culture muisca.
Inside the culture muisca, strong bonds existed between the legends, the nature and the perception of the sacred thing.
This way they developed different myths as regards its origin, like the following ones.
He reports like the solitary mother – grandmother Bague, it gave to him of drinking the gods so that they were granting him life to the nature.
He narrates like Chiminigagua come from the darkness it created a few black birds, who interspersed its breath to conceive the humanity.
Chiefs Sogamoso and Ramiriquí.
It describes that existing the ground and the sky, these chiefs, they created the men, the Sun, also to the Moon.
It tells that after the creation, a woman called Bachué, went out of the Iguaque lagoon with a child.
On having happened of the years, this boy turned into the Bachué husband, they had many children and populated the world.
Finally both turned into snake, returned to the lagoon and any more they never returned.
There exist other legends referred to the lessons got for the culture muisca in its learning to the textile in cotton, agriculture and respect to the gods.
These refer to the myths of Bochica, Sadigua, Huitaca and Tequendama.
The historical chronology of the culture muisca.
According to some scientists, the muiscas emigrated to the plateau cundiboyacense during the epoch pre-muisca, between the years 5500 and 500 BC. In accordance with the finds, this stage comprises three periods:
There were the first human groups that settled in the plateau, devoting itself to the hunting and the compilation.
It forced the climate changes to move towards the moorlands, where there initiated the baby of guinea pigs and the agriculture.
They occupied an extensive territory, being used in agricultural activities, especially the cultivation of the corn, and potters in the ceramics manufacture.
The following epoch receives the name of poblamiento muisca, which happened between the years 500 A.C and 800D.C. A new migration belonging to the linguistic family chibcha established in the high grounds cundiboyacens.
This was the panorama that there found hundred sixty six men of the Spanish conquest;
after crossing the summit of the Andes of Colombia, in the XVIth century.
Political-administrative organization of the culture muisca.
With the increase of the population thickness;
the culture muisca established a system of government called Confederacy Muisca;
shaped by several tribes muiscas autonomous, and governed for a chief.
In turn the confederacy was centralized principally in two states.
It was representing the Confederacy of the South, located in the central area of Cundinamarca, whose capital was Bacatá; today Bogota, being governed by the Zipa.
The same way it was integrated for cincos cacicazgos: Batacá, Guatavita, Ubaque, Fusunga, Ubaté, with several towns to its charge.
With the conquest most of these territories formed Santa Fe of Bogota.
The Confederacy of the North was located in the current municipalities of Lenguazaque and Villapinzón;
with its capital in Hunza, which at present is Tunja, being its leader the Drunkard.
Additionally to these territories of the confederacy, two big captaincies existed, with a more religious and sacred purpose called Zybyn:.
Its capital Suamox, at present Sogamoso, was governed by a priest or Iraca, considered heir of Bochica.
Located in Duitama, and governed by a priest or Tundama, who was the only one in being opposed férreamente to the conquerors.
There were other villages autonomous muiscas or Uta governed by the Tybaraüge, which were not centralized under the same leader;
Soboyá, Charalá, Chipatá, Saquencia, Tacasquira, Tinjacá.
The economic activity of the culture muisca.
In the first stages, the muiscas managed to develop agricultural activities, goldsmiths and textileras.
They cultivated corn, pope, quínoa, cotton and prepared ceramics and blankets, which they were exchanging with nearby peoples.
Later with the Confederacy Muisca they exploited mining resources as the gold, emeralds, copper, coal and salt.
The market constituted the axis of the economy muisca, besieged where they were commercialized or were exchanging products with the peoples.
Between the main ones they were: Coyima, Zorocotá and Turmequé.
Another aspect of the culture muisca is that they used a currency species done of ruined gold, silver or copper.
Where the monetary value was given by the size of the same one, being measured by the fingers or cords.
They implemented an agricultural system called micoverticalidad model, having in every area transitory housings and working the ground in accordance with the climate.
It represented a solution for the cultivation before the climatic conditions limitantes of the region.
The religious world of the culture muisca.
The religious peculiarity of the culture muisca is that they were thinking that the spirits were linked by the nature.
In her they dedicated many sacred places, which according to its beliefs were inhabited by some divinity:
They were untouchable, due to its conviction of being bless you for the gods.
Plants and sacred trees.
Such like the tijiqui, tobacco, myrtle, walnut and the lignum vitae.
The lagoon of Iguaque and lake of Tota, as well as those who belonged to the circuit of the religious ceremony to cover the ground, like Ubaque, Teusacá, Guaiaquiti, Tibatiquica, Siecha, Guasca and Guatavita covered by the participants in peregrination.
Sacred Earth of Suamox.
Considered blessed in consequence that there Bochica died.
Those where it had traveled Bochica, which nobody could tread, except in some religious ceremonies.
Constructed in circular form, with roof of straw and walls of mats.
Between the types of temples it was differing.
the tchunsua, of solar nature.
qusmhuy, of lunar extract.
peseta, where they were taught to the futures chyquy.
The Temple of the Sun.
the biggest of the religious centers, was constructed in Sogamoso.
place chosen by Bochica in honor to the god the sun, whom they were offering the bodies of those who there were sacrificed.
Also they were venerating a series of mythological deities as.
Bachué (first-born of the people).
Bochica (son of the sky).
Chaquén (he was watching the cultivation).
Chibchacum (god of the goldsmiths and merchants).
Chiminigagua (creative deity).
Chía (god of the Moon).
Sua (god of the Sun).
The priests muiscas or chyquy.
they were taking a religious life of bachelorhood, chastity, and seclusion in the temples with frequent fastings.
These had a hard learning process from its infancy, which once concluded earrings were placed and narigueras of gold.
It is important to stand out, that every town had its chyquy. On the other hand, the mohanes;
they were the informal priests who were inhaling yopo dust, and they were smearing its hair with ashes.
The rituals and ceremonies of the culture muisca.
As all the pre-Columbian cultures, the muiscas were doing different gifts to its gods, between that the tunjos were standing out.
It was a question of anthropomorphous statuettes or of animals realized in gold, silver or copper. Other forms of ofrendar to the gods were the aromatic smokes.
animal and human sacrifices, as that of the young people, that once sacrificed, its blood was smearing itself to the stones to offer to the sun.
Principally, the ceremonies of the culture muisca were related to the agricultural cycles and the life.
Between which there were the holidays of the sowing and the harvest, of the caiques and of the construction and opening of fences.
The legend of The Gilding.
The Gilding was a mythical place in the whole America, where it was supposed that there were big golden reservations.
Its origin goes back 1534, when an Indian told him to the Spanish on the ceremonies in the Guatavita lagoon.
A ritual that it was consisting of covering with golden dust to the body of the new chief.
And The rest of the natives, in this moment began to throw golden pieces and emeralds to the lagoon.
Then, the rumor was moving between the conquerors of the existence of a golden Indian or a golden king.
What generated consecutive explorations of the conquerors for almost the whole Amazon forest, in which many people died.
Until the year 1538, three different expeditions coincided with the search of the treasure without success.
Nevertheless, the legend of The Gilding continues currently, being part of the history of the American culture.
It is possible to conclude, that the culture muisca leaves us as bequeathed a historical example, for its wide political, economic and religious organization.