LAMBAYEQUE CULTURE. Although The Lambayeque culture was formed following the decline of the Moche, assimilated a great part of their knowledge and traditions, perfeccionándolos even more.
Also known as Sicán culture, it developed between the years 750 and 1375 A.D., on the north coast of Peru.
Specifically, it covered the area between the valleys of Motupe and Jequetepeque, of the current departments of Lambayeque and Libertad.
Aspects of the Lambayeque culture.
This culture was based on a theocratic state, with a social structure ruled by an elite of divine descent.
Whose political-religious center initially settled in Batan Grande, and later transferred to Túcume.
The Rest of the society was in charge of administrative, artisanal and agricultural work.
Economically The Lambayeque culture was supported by an intensive agriculture of maize, cotton, bean, pumpkin, cassava and potato.
Building a hydrological system that managed to articulate the watersheds of the valleys of La Leche, Lambayeque, Chancay and Reque.
On the other hand, the lambayeques possessed a mythical myth related to their origin.
According to this, the great King Naylamp had arrived on a raft by sea, accompanied by a courtship.
This Monarch brought with him an idol of green Jade called Llampayec, which was placed inside the Chot temple, built for that purpose.
The word Llampayec gave the name to the Lambayeque culture, while the man with the winged eyes, Naylamp, became the main deity.
Historical Summary of the Lambayeque culture.
Chronologically The Lambayeque culture underwent several training changes, based on it, the historians divide it in the following three periods:
Early (700-900 A.D.).
Although It is not known much of this stage because of the lack of archaeological evidence, they were supposed to be descendants of the Mochica culture.
They Also maintained commercial relations with Ecuadorian, Colombian and Chilean villages.
Intermediate (900-1100 A.D.).
Being the period of flourishing of the Lambayeque culture, it was distinguished by the emergence of a political identity, religious and a local autonomy, due to the decline of the Wari.
This highlighted artistic manifestations, funerary customs and ceremonial centers under a religious ideology that maintained the structure of the theocratic state.
Final (1100-1375 A.D.).
In the Face of the suffering of a period of thirty years of drought, and the inability of the gods to stop this phenomenon;
The Large Batan temples were burned by the population.
Later they built a new capital between the valleys of La Leche and Lambayaque, called Túcume, becoming a ceremonial center.
During This stage of change, a new religious thought was also reflected based on the relationship with nature.
Finally, in 1375, the territories of the Lambayeque culture were conquered by the Chimu Kingdom.
This fact produced a cultural synthesis between The two civilizations.
Ceremonial Center of the Lambayeque culture.
The Lambayeque culture built large monumental complexes, where they performed the religious ceremonies, administered the economy and lived the rulers.
While the rest of the population lived in the vicinity, and only entered these places to give offerings to the gods or pay tribute.
These localities were differentiated by having several pyramids built in bricks of adobe and truncated, ie without vertex at the point.
Among The main ceremonial centers are
Considered the first capital of the Lambayeque culture, it has 20 pyramids that measure more than 30 meters each.
Among which are called Huacas: Gold, Windows, La Merced, Botija, Cutting, Engineer and Roller.
It Was The second capital of the Lambayeque culture, located only 10 kilometres from the first, where the agricultural development prospered.
Qualified as one of the largest resorts in Peru, approaching the city category.
It Is characterized by pyramids, deposits, streets, irrigation canals and land for cultivation.
Manifestations of the Lambayeque culture.
Essentially the expressions of the Lambayeque culture that emerged were the following.
Nourished by the Moche origins, they achieved an authentic identity, highlighting the use of the pedestal, globular bodies and conical beaks.
He also highlighted the use of a single color, although some objects were decorated with different shades.
The techniques used on the clear or black pasta were the previous molding and an intense polishing to give a final finish with a lot of shine.
Representations of animals, fruits, and human heads Were common with winged eyes.
Even though many of the mural paintings are deteriorated in the different monuments, they have captured topics related to agriculture, trophy heads and birds.
They Manufactured a large number of elements of materials such as gold, silver;
Some examples of the art of the Lambayeque culture are the Tumi or ceremonial knife, the funerary mask and the tomb of the priestess of Chornancap.
In Short, if the moches astonished with its metallurgical beauty, the Lambayeque culture surprised with metallic alloys and fine finishes.