MAPUCHE CULTURE » A large ethnic group with many similarities in common that managed to develop one of the best textile arts in South America, was the Mapuche culture.
Also Known as Araucans, they are a village originating in Chile, which currently inhabit the Araucanía and Metropolitana de Santiago regions.
Although in previous times, they occupied much of the Pampa and north of the Argentinean Patagonia.
With the arrival of the conquest emigrated to the east by the Andes, establishing contact with other peoples, without great violence and displacement.
The Mapuche culture had a traditional economy based on the cultivation of maize, potatoes, chili, as well as hunting and gathering.
In Addition, it had a social organization composed of extended families, under the command of a chief named Lonko.
Ethnic groups the Mapuche culture.
As mentioned earlier, the Mapuches were composed of several ethnic groups that shared linguistic, social, religious and economic similarities.
Forming the southern branch of the Araucans, they were characterized as a peaceful people with great virtues in the production of maize and potato.
Also its location on the island of Chiloé, allowed the development of fishing in boats known as canoes.
The coastal strip that spans from the south of Valdivia to the river Maullín;
Although its settlement has been defined as semi-nomad, since they spent long periods in their boats.
They lived in Nahuel Huapi, in the Cordillera de los Andes entre (Argentina-Chile).
This Group was dedicated mainly to the hunting of the Guanaco, Rhea and fruit collection, until in 1750 it was totally absorbed by the Mapuche culture.
Being located in the South Central zone of the Cordillera de los Andes, they stood out for their hunting skills, using the Boleadoras for that purpose.
They Were The inhabitants of the region of the Cordillera de Valdivia and Osorno, in Chile. Long-headed, which was warped.
These Nomadic hunters installed in the Argentine pampas, they maintained ties with the Tehuelche, to enter into the attacks called Malolos.
Aonikenk or Tehuelche.
They Were Terrestrial nomads of the Strait of Magellan (Patagonia);
Recognized for being one of the highest ethnic groups in the world.
Religion of the Mapuche culture.
The beliefs of the Mapuche culture were based on the worship of ancestral spirits or elements of nature.
In this way they venerated entities like.
Benign masculine Spirit, the origin of the Mapuches.
He declared himself to be the feminine benevolent soul, directly linked to the human being.
He referred to the entity of Nature, whose mission was to care for, protect, safeguard, control and ensure the balance, well-being and preservation of the elements of the environment in his charge.
Evil Spirit with energies to destroy the balance in the world.
Later, with the evangelization of the colonists, the religious doctrine of the Mapuche culture took refuge in main spiritualities with universal gifts and creators such as Ngenechén, Antu, Elche and Elmapu.
Exerted by a woman to cure diseases, to remove the evil, Tamincidir in the climate and also in the crops.
In relation to the Mapuche worldview, the universe was interpreted based on the following plans.
or above ground, where the ancient protective beings inhabit.
or land below, confers the world where humans live, and is complemented by the four cardinal points: Puel Mapu (east), Pikun Mapu (north), Lafken Mapu (west) and Willi Mapu (south).
or land below, an underground territory that shelters the beings of the force of evil.
The weaving of the Mapuche culture.
In the elaboration they first prevailed the techniques like washing, drying, escarmenado, spinning and dyeing of the wool.
These textiles became very coveted by the rest of the tribes, used for bartering merchandise among them, and even with the settlers they changed them for horses.
A skill that the Mapuche culture continues to develop today, along with its commitment to recover its native lands both in Argentina and Chile.